By Rob Arndt
"The Bell" (German: Die Glocke) represented something at the very pinnacle of SS General’s Hans Kammler's occult and super-secret SS "wonder weapons" empire. Nick Cook's book, "Hunt for Zero Point" represents the only publicly accessible information on this bizarre object in the English language, the equally macabre experimentation that surrounded it, and the stringent security the SS held it under. The following are the salient features of The Bell, according to information Cook received from both German and Czech sources:
(1) The Bell was reportedly a metallic object, approximately 9 ft. in diameter and 12-15 ft. tall;
(2) It looked like a "Bell", hence its codename to the Germans, die Glocke;
(3) It was comprised of two counter-rotating cylinders, rotating a purplish liquid-metallic looking substance code-named "Xerum 525" by the Germans, at high speeds;
(4) "Xerum 525" was apparently highly radioactive, being purple in color, and housed in cylinders with lead lining 3 cm (12 in.) thick;
(5) The Bell apparently required high amounts of electrical power in its operation;
(6) During use, it could only be run for approximately one to two minutes, as it apparently gave off strong radiation and/or other electromagnetic or unknown field effects
(a) Several scientist died on its first operation;
(b) Subsequent tests included various plants and animals, all of which decomposed into a blackish goo and without normal putrefaction, within a matter of a few minutes or hours after exposure to its field effects when in operation;
(c) Technicians near the Bell during these experiments reported metallic tastes in their mouths after being exposed to it;
(d) The chamber in which the Bell was tested was lined with ceramic bricks and rubber mats, and had to have its rubber matting removed and burned after each test, and it was subsequently washed down with brine by inmates from nearby concentration camps;
(7) All the scientists and witnesses who saw or worked on the Bell were murdered by the SS as the war neared its end;
(8) The Bell was transplanted out of Silesia to a destination that has never been discovered. The Bell, along with General Kammler himself, simply disappear entirely from history, never to be seen again. It is believed, however, that both the Bell and General Kammler were transported by U-boat to a base outside of the Reich (Base 211 in Neu Schwabenland, Antarctica being the strongest choice). Others suggest Norway where German troops still held that territory with another Ju-390 supposedly kept in reserve as an evacuation aircraft.
(9) A strange "Henge" like structure was constructed by the Germans out of reinforced concrete near the facility where the Bell was located and tested. This structure resembled a test rig for the possible test of extremely powerful propulsion devices.
The housing of this device in an underground chamber lined with ceramic brick and rubber mats suggests that it gave off extremely strong electro-magnetic or electro-static field effects as well as high heat when in operation. The reporting of metallic tastes in the mouths of what few surviving personnel there are suggests this. The quick decay without apparent putrefaction of organic material within its field suggests effects that some would associate with scalar waves.
But what was the mysterious "Xerum 525"? When first investigating this strange material, the first thought is that it might be some radioactive isotope of mercury, or possibly a more radioactive substance in chemical solution of some sort. It is perhaps worth noting that recently a strange substance known as "red mercury", or mercury antominate oxide, has been alleged to have strong neutron emitting properties when subjected to sudden explosive stress, and is alleged to be a non-fissile method of triggering the enormous fusion reactions of hydrogen bombs, as well as being able, in its own right, of fission explosions in the small kiloton range. Perhaps the Nazis had stumbled onto a similar such substance during the war.
Cook also notes that, at the end of the war, Kammler had special jurisdiction over a secret "SS evacuation command" that had been personally established by Reichsleiter Martin Bormann
in great secrecy. This command included jurisdiction over all of Nazi Germany's heavy-lift ultra-long range transport aircraft, including the Ju-290 and the six engine monster, the Ju-390, stationed near Prag-Kbely Aerodrome. These planes were based at the end of the war quite near the secret underground facility where the Bell was being tested.
Jakob Sporrenberg and Die Glocke
In charge of the Special Evacuation unit's "northern route" cell was a very high-ranking SS general named Jakob Sporrenberg, who was captured by the British and handed over to the Poles. During interrogations, he let out his knowledge regarding some mysterious high-tech machine called "Die Glocke" - 'the Bell'.
Following his capture, as much as Sporrenberg was able to divulge to Soviet intelligence and the Polish courts about the Bell was this, Witkowski said.
The project had gone under two code names: "Laternenträger" and "Chronos" and always involved "Die Glocke" - the bell-shaped object that had glowed when under test. The Bell itself was made out of a hard, heavy metal and was filled with a mercury-like substance, violet in color... The experiments always took place under a thick ceramic cover and involved the rapid spinning of two cylinders in opposite directions.
The tests involved placing various plants and animals within the Bell's influence. Almost all of them were destroyed:
A crystalline substance formed within the tissues, destroying them from the inside; liquids, including blood, gelled and separated into clearly distilled fractions." People in the program also suffered from "sleep problems, loss of memory and balance, muscle spasms and a permanent unpleasant taste in the mouth.
Many of the scientists even died as a result of their exposure to the activated Bell.
According to Sporrenberg, this enigmatic "Bell" was evacuated by the Special Evacuation Kommando before the enemy forces arrived. So, why the hell was this 'Bell' that was so important?
According to Sporrenberg, it was associated with "vortex compression" and "magnetic fields separation," and a related source suggested that the Bell had something to do with "spin polarization" and "spin resonance."
These were, Witkowski pointed out to Cook, "physical principles that had come to be associated with the new wave of gravity and antigravity pioneers - people like Dr. Evgeny Podkletnov."
Could this be it? Was the 'Bell' an antigravity device? Could this be what Kammler and others used to make a deal with the United States? If the 'Bell' really was an operational antigravity machine, it would have certainly been spectacular enough to effectively seduce the victors of the war.
Actually, the 'Bell' could potentially be something even more spectacular. "Marckus," an eminent scientist in one of Britain's best-known universities (Cook refrains from using this person's real name), who had become Cook's unofficial technical adviser, had an insight.
Shortly before I boarded my flight at Munich, I checked my cell phone for messages. There were four and Dan Marckus had left three of them. Whatever was on his mind, I knew I was on to something, because, for once, Marckus was chasing me.
With one eye on the departure gate and another on the clock, I called him back.
Even over the bustle of movement in the departure hall and the static of a bad line, I could tell something was definitely up.
"I know what they were trying to do," he said simply.
"My tone softened. "OK, go ahead. I'm listening."
"They were trying to generate a torsion field."
"What is a torsion field?"
"Laternenträger means 'lantern holder.' (Phosphorous from Greek mythology, is known as the “lantern bearer” and in Roman mythology the lantern bearer was known as Satan).
"But it's the second code name that's the giveaway. Chronos. You know what it means, don't you?"
"Yes, Dan. I know what it means. What is a torsion field? What does it do?"
"If you generate a torsion field of sufficient magnitude the theory says you can bend the four dimensions of space around the generator. When you bend space, you also bend time.
"Now, do you understand what they were trying to do?"
I said nothing. It was Marckus who closed the loop.
"They were trying to build a fucking time machine," he said.
Nazi Bell project
Put most simply the Nazi Bell was in fact a heavy particle accelerator used as an artificial neutron source to breed Protactinium 233 from Thorium 232. Protactinium would naturally degrade after 27 days into pure bomb grade Uranium 233. Heisenberg advocated this method at the Harneck Haus conference in July 1942 and worked closely with Swiss engineer Dr Walter Dallenbach at a secret facilty known as "Forschungsstelle D" to develop the Nazi Bell.
It harnessed the fluorescent quality of Mercury to cause collisions between electrons and photons, which in result released thermal neutrons. The device was surrounded by a concave beryllium mirror to reflect neutrons back into a mass of Thorium oxide placed at the core. The machine generated this X-ray plasma in orbit around an axle which spun two carefully phased contra rotating drums.
How the Story Emerges
In August 1997 a Polish Intelligence officer with access to Polish Government documents made writer Igor Witkowski aware of the Nazi Bell. Original documents came from war crime interrogation of former SS Lt General Jakob Sporrenberg after the war.
According to Witkowski whilst working as a military journalist, an undisclosed member of Polish military intelligence showed him some interesting documents. Witkowski recieved discreet access over a period of a month during which he transcribed files by hand. These documents have not been independently verified, however there are several less well detailed corroborations of the Bell project from entirely different sources.
Witkowski read of a centrifuge device shaped like a Bell with hemispherical domed top. The outer Bell was made of a three inch thick ceramic material, much like a high voltage insulator. Said to be 9 feet in diameter and 12-14 feet high. It consumed prodigious amounts of electrical power and glowed violet-blue when operated for short periods.
Inside the Bell were located two contra rotating drums.  Mercury (alternate accounts say amalgams of mercury) was spun inside these drums. Jelly like compounds of Beryllium with Thorium were located in flasks within the central axis. Beryllium compounds in use were called “Xerum 525.” During WW2 Jelly like parraffin was used as a moderator in some reactor experiments, thus by iimplication Xerum 525 most likely contained Beryllium and Thorium suspended in Parraffin.
Dr Ing Ernst Nagelstein visited a conference in Switzerland on 2 November 1944 where he disclosed to an OSS agent present that Auer was refining Thorium to metal and there was no known use for Thorium. He also reported that Otto Hahn was working on A-bomb using either Uranium or Thorium
Thorium was mined in Silesia near the Bell's location. Even larger stocks were available in France. When the Allies landed at Normandy in 1944, Germany urgently shipped tons of French Thorium eastwards deep into Germany by rail. Why ship it so urgently and what made it so important?
Secret Code Names
Numerous Top Secret codenames are associated with the so-called Nazi Bell. The term Nazi Bell however is just a modern affectation, due to the device's resemblance to a Bell. When the Bell turned up on a German plane in Argentina however in May 1945, Argentine Intelligence referred in a report which was classified until 1993, calling it the "Bell."
Priority classification was invoked for the Bell in 1944, quoted as SS/1940. This classification was cited seeking the release from arrest of engineer Richard Crämer from a 2 year sentence for defeatist attitudes. The name Charite-Anlage applied specifically to engineering and manufacture of the Bell itself.
Another code name associated was Der Laternenträger (Lantern Bearer), a loose metaphor for the Light Bearer, Lucifer, presumably referring to medical and biological experiments with radiation. It may also refer to the weaponisation of nuclear material produced by the Bell. The Laternenträger research was based in Fürstenstein Castle according to Gross Rosen camp survivour, Professor Mieczyslaw Moldavia. Researchers involved with this project were also investigating and testing pressure suits for a manned V-2 rocket known as the A-9, part of a manned two stage rocket for attacking New York.
A design study was initiated for a manned A9. This version replaced the 2,200 lb warhead of the V-2 with a pressurized cockpit.
Some sources indicate that the intended mission of this extraordinarily high-performance manned missile was strategic reconnaissance. A ramjet engine and associated fuel tankage were to be added to provide power for cruise flight, and landing gear and flaps would enable landings on conventional runways. The radical vehicle would have had performance comparable to the US X-15 experimental hypersonic rocket plane of the late 1950s.
An even more advanced version of the A9 was planned to be used to attack the US from launch sites in Europe. In order to do so, an additional booster stage, the A10, was necessary. An initial report on the concept was issued by Peenemünde's propulsion expert, Dr Thiel, on December 18 1941, immediately after the US entered the war.
The intercontinental A9 was equipped with radically modified, highly-swept wings for a transatlantic glide beginning at hypersonic (greater than Mach 5) speeds and was nested in the nose of the A10. The A10 itself was about 65 feet long and was equipped with a 375,000 lb thrust rocket engine burning Diesel-grade oil and nitric acid. During its 50 second burn, it could accelerate the A9 to a speed of about 2,700 mph and an altitude of about 15 miles. With the A9 installed, the composite rocket would have stood about 84 feet tall.
Prof Walther Gerlach who headed Thor for Heereswaffenamt was a dedicated scientist. In 1943 Gerlach received the Nobel prize for his work on spin polarisation of atoms. This itself was peculia because his published work on the subject was in the 1920s and early 1930s. What prompted the awarding of recognition in 1943?
As an administrator, in emergency measures to progress the German A-bomb project, Gerlach was also charged with procuring fissile Uranium from January 1944. He was appointed in charge of the entire Uranium project by Heereswaffenamt, replacing Dr Abraham Essau.
Documents captured by ALSOS at Strassburg, often referred to as the Goudsmitt Papers which were classified after the War today reveal drawings of a tall standing device, looking like a Van der Graff generator, or perhaps a Tesla Coil. At the very top inside it's spherical head was a spinning device. In the margin are notes describing 5 million volts!Nazi research papers captured at Strassburg concerning wartime nuclear projects were classified and archived in USA. One report has a diagram of a tall cylindrical device said in the plan to generate 5 Million Electron Volts (5MeV). This device resembled a giant Van der Graff generator and had no obvious purpose for a conventional nuclear reactor. 
At the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biophysics in 1940, biologist Boris Rajewsky raised concerns about increased experimentation with artificial radiation and called for a project to research the effects of radiation. A 3 million volt device was built for Rajewsky's research whose existence remains obscure.
When Gerlach took over from Essau in January 1944 he shunned KWI's extravagant and wasteful research projects. He focused exclusively on development of nuclear weapons. At a meeting with Mentzell and Schumann in October 1944 they passed a motion not to turn over the still unfinished 3 million volt machine to Rajewsky because other previous high voltage "neutron generators" had been destroyed by Allied bombing. The new machine was vital for "the production of neutrons in physics and in the physics of explosives." No information is available to identify what these earlier neutron generators were, or where their location was. 
After 22 July 1944, the SS took over all nuclear projects from Heereswaffenamt. Thor was replaced by Charite Anlage along with a host of other codenames issued by SS Armaments office, Forschungen Entwicklungen, Patente (research development work patents) FEP headed by Admiral Rhein.
The armaments office was headed by SS Brigadeführer Heinrich Gärtner. The Bell project itself was headed by SS Obergruppenführer Emil Mazauw. SS Lt General Dr Hans Kammler has often been mentioned in relation to the Bell project however Kammler’s command appears connected more with armaments production whilst Mauzaw’s command was focused on research and development. It is possible however given his responsibility for nuclear weapons that he was connected with the weaponisation of material produced by the Bell. 
Almost exactly a year after it arrived at Breslau, as Soviet forces fought across Poland the Bell was shifted a short distance south into foothills of the Owl Mountains inside a complex of tunnels beneath Fûrstenstein Castle. The complex had been built by organisation Todt under the supervision of Xavier Dorsch These tunnels included a 2 kilometre long subterranean rail connection with the main railway line through Lubiechow in the valley below. The tunnel was connected with the castle above by elevator in a 50 metre tall shaft.
Laboratories for developing electrical discharge systems for the Bell were at Neumarkt (modern Sroda Slaska) and Leubus (modern Lubiaz) disguised in the facility of Schlesische Wekstätten der Fûrstenau, (Fûrstenstein Castle) with corporate involvement by AEG (AEG-Allgemeine Elektrizitaets-Gesellschaft, Annaberg in Erzgebirge) and Siemens (control mechanism). Manufacture of the complex, contra-rotating centrifugal drum mechanism was performed by BMAG (Berlin Anhaltische Maschinenbau AG) located at Dessau, home of the sprawling Junkers aircraft factory complex. In this context, BMAG was also awarded a contract for industrial scale production of Dr Erich Bagge's Isotope Sluice centrifuges.
A sizeable underground facility existed at Schloss Fürstenstein (underneath Fürstenstein Castle) lower Silesia. Nearby and to the east, the main Nazi Bell facility itself was located in the Wenceslas mine at Ludwigsdorf (modern Ludwikowize). First experiments with the Nazi Bell occurred in May and June 1944.
Evidence of the Project's existence
At Farm Hall after the War whilst interned by the Allies, Prof Gerlach complained to collegues about difficulties assembling the engineers required for his photo-chemistry project:
"It is not true that we neglected the separation of isotopes. On the contrary, we discussed the whole thing at Tübingen in February and there was a meeting at Munich. Clusius, Harteck and I said that this photo chemical thing must be done. It took until the end of the year before the people who could do it were got together and the spectrograph obtained and special accommodation acquired, as the Litz Institute had been smashed up". 
In fact project engineer, SS officer and ardent Nazi Dr Kurt Debus, denounced his collegue at AEG, Dr Richard Crämer to the Gestapo. On Crämer's behalf another collegue, Dr Carl Ramsaur, intervened and wrote to the Gestapo about the importance of Crämer's work referring to the nature of their project as 'KRIEGSENTSCHEIDENT' [WAR DECISIVE].
Anti Gravity Claims
Unfortunately the Nazi Bell attracts a lot of outlandish claims linking it to anti-gravity theories, or claims that it was a propulsion system for UFOs. I do not subscribe to, nor agree with such claims.
Some such claims may have been intended as disinformation by Sporrenberg to his interrogators. Others may be founded on Dr Ronald Richter's work in Argentina during the early 1950s on plasma shockwave induced fusion and his claims in a letter seeking work in USA on plasma ramjet engines. Richter claimed this engine could enable vertical take of fighters, but with fuel consumption 20 times greater than that of a comparable jet engine.
Joseph Farrell wrote that Gerlach never before the war referred to Gravitational physics, nor after the war returned to the subject. Oddly I point out that Gerlach made no reference to the subject during the war either. Farrell apparently ignores the obvious that this absence only corroborates the Bell had nothing to do with anti-gravity.
Gerlach never applied himself to gravitational physics during the war period. Farrell quotes Nick Cook in the book "Hunt for Zero Point", suggesting that Gerlach was frightened off the subject, yet this is just circular reasoning, trying to suggest that because he never... EVER referred to gravitational physics, therefore it must have been a cover-up. These comments should be consigned to the illogical scrap heap of disinformation. There was no such connection. Farrell and others use interpretations, or inferences to qualify their claims.
Identities within the Bell Project
Of the other Nazi engineers or scientists claimed, or thought to be involved with the Nazi Bell, were Prof Kurt Debus, Dr Ronald Richter, Ing Otto Cerny, Dr Otto Ambros, Dr Elizabeth Adler and Ing Dr Richard Crämer. Witkowski in his book noted from Polish Intelligence sources that the SS shot 66 scientists involved with the Bell to prevent their falling into Soviet hands.  These however may have been captured Soviet and eastern European “guest workers.”
There are two distinct bodies of scientists and engineers involved. Those who developed the device itself Like Richter, Crämer, Cerny and Debus, were more in the realm of high voltage electrical engineers. Ambros, Adler and Gerlach on the other hand were more likely concerned with the applications of the Bell device.
Dr Elizabeth Adler was a mathematician said to have been evacuated with the Bell and Debus on a Junkers Ju-390 flight in April 1945.  Mathematics play an important role in calculating particle deflection in quantum physics. No record of Adler survives the war, however Gerlach's assistant before the war was a talented mathematician Miss Elisabeth Borman who had also worked for Max Born. It is known that their favourite hotel in Stockholm was the Adler Hotel.
Dr Otto Ambros was expert in Chemical warfare and chairman of Albert Speer's "S" Committee. The Bell served two different projects. One for nuclear physics and the other for biological warfare research, in particular studying the effects of radiation exposure on Concentration camp inmates, animals and plants.
Dr. Kurt Debus is best known for his role in managing V-2 launches for the SS and later working for NASA on Apollo moon launches. He also had expertise however in the measurement of high voltage discharges.
His official NASA biography says:
"Born in Frankfurt, Germany, in 1908, Dr. Debus received all his schooling in that country. He attended Darmstadt University where he earned his initial and advanced degrees in mechanical and electrical engineering. He served as a graduate assistant on the faculty for electrical engineering and high-voltage engineering while studying for his master’s degree. In 1939 he obtained his engineering doctorate with a thesis on surge voltages and was appointed assistant professor at the university. During this period he became actively engaged in the rocket research program at Peenemünde".
A common criticism of the Bell story is that the only reference to its existence is from Witkowski's claim of Sporrenberg's post war testimony, however Debus also described the Bell.
-- Document dated 22 April 1943 Foreign Scientist Case Files, K Debus NARA/RG 28, US Nat. Archive, College Park, Maryland USA.
Another reference to the Bell's existence comes from Polish scientist Prof Meiczyslaw Moldovia, a former prisoner of Gross Rosen Concentration camp who worked at the technical office in Fürstenstein Castle for Laternenträger. After the War he revealed he had worked in the training of Nazi astronauts for a piloted version of the V-2 rocket. Such a rocket project did exist, called the A9/A10 Amerika Rakete intended for launch against New York. His claim might be dismissed as the product of an overworked imagination, but in January 1945 Rocket scientist Wernher von Braun stated in a report to Berlin that problems with the piloted A9 were solved. From near Arnstadt the launch of such a rocket was observed on 16 March 1945, but remains unconfirmed.
In 2000, "Der Spiegel" surprised the world when it published an interview with an interview with Raul Streicher. Streicher claimed to be Nazi Germany’s third A9/A10 astronaut after Rudolf Schreder and Martin von Duhlen. Some of Streicher’s claims seemed unbelievable but "Der Spiegel" launched a special investigation studying classified archives of the Third Reich and could not disprove his story.
It has to be noted however that some of Streicher's assertions about his own flight defy even the performance projections made for an A9/A10 rocket by its developers, such that Stricher's claims about his own personal rocket flight should not be trusted.
Corroboration however comes from unexpected sources. In his book "Leap of Faith" (pub 2000) US "Gemini" astronaut Gordon Cooper stated that in April 1945 at Peenemünde the Germans had "a manned V-2" ready to fly. Cooper claimed his information came from "Jack Keutner" alias Dr Joachim Küttner, a former Peenemünde scientist working for NASA.
Laternenträger was also linked with the work of Dr. Erich Regener, who meticulously researched the effects of radiation from 1914. In 1942 Regener became involved with the V-2 project developing a pressurised re-entry capsule with parachutes for a soft landing. This was called the Regener Tonne. Had the V-2 been used for nuclear warheads, or nerve gas, then Regener’s capsule would likely have been a pre-requisite. Interest in Regener’s work inexplicably halted in mid-1944.
Josef Koch was an engineer sent to work at Flottmannwerke, Breslau in May 1944. The plant consisted thirteen buildings and 2000 staff, with it’s own site Police force. Flottmanwerke made tank tracks, but it’s highest priority work was manufacturing “internal parts for V weapons.” Koch told how prior to May 1944 V-1s had been assembled there as well as V-2s.
Inside the director’s office were diagrams and officials there spoke of the V-3. Koch said the V-3 was 33.1 metres long and 3.2 metres diameter. He spoke of eight sections containing nitro glycerine and compressed air.
It appears according to Koch therefore that at least up until May 1944, Laternenträger was involved in preparing prototypes of V-1 and V-2 rockets with nerve gas warheads.
Dr Otto Cerny revealed his role in the Nazi Bell in the early 1960s whilst working for NASA to Greg Rowe’s father. Greg recalled listening to the conversation as a child and recounted it for Henry Stevens. Cerny described it as something like a ring of stones with a hoop inside which sat the Bell. Cerny also mentioned a concave mirror above the axis through which one could see backwards.  The JIOA list of scientists most of whom were recruited for Operation Paperclip to work for USA. The list refers to Cerny as “Elec. Instal. on Supersonics” and that he had been attached to the technical University of Vienna. The Vienna technical university was involved with an underground SS nuclear facility at Melk and a nuclear research laboratory at Zell am See.
Crämer was a transformer engineer from Oberschönweide whom together with the AEG Research Institute was developing the Hochspannungsprojekt (High Voltages Project) under contract to Heereswaffenamt (HWA). This project was reborn under the SS in July 1944, codenamed Charite Anlage with the priority code reference SS/1040. When Crämer was denounced to the Gestapo by Gerlach, AEG Resarch institute’s Prof Dr. Carl Ramsaur defended Crämer’s importance to the war effort and the highest priority work of Prof Dr E. Schumann, to secure Crämer’s release. Ramsaur’s letter links the Bell with German atomic bomb research.
Clues to Bell’s Purpose
Dr Eric Schumann of course was working on designs in 1943 with Dr Walter Trinks for hollow, shaped charge tactical atomic weapons using Uranium 233 as their fissile mass. The question of course arises where would Schumann obtain extremely rare and hard to separate Uranium 233?
The answer I suggest is the Bell produced Uranium 233 for Schumann. Rainer Karlsh’s book, "Hitler’s Bombe" relates that a team of physicists from Leibig University at Giessen carried out a lot of research at Ludwikowize, which is where the Nazi Bell was located. Sporrenberg commented on various animals and personnel dying horrible deaths after exposure to the Bell. He said their flesh would liquify. Giessen is north of Frankfurt am Main and it's research appears focused on genetics and biological research. Was this ghastly research to discover what radiation could do to Germany's enemies?
Bell as a Uranium/Plutonium Breeder?
Otto Hahn experimented before the war with Lise Meitner on photo-fission techniques to determine the properties of slow neutrons and transmutation of elements. Because Hahn was not particularly gifted, or insightful, he relied heavily upon Meitner who as a Jewish scientist fled to Stockholm in 1938. Hahn used the excellent air mail service between Berlin and Stockholm throughout the war to seek Meitner’s advice and unwittingly was the prime security breach for Nazi Germany’s entire nuclear effort. Everything Hahn knew was relayed to MI5 through Operation Epsilon. 
Dr Ing Ernst Nagelstein contacted the OSS in Switzerland on 2 November 1944 and disclosed that the Auer Company was refining Thorium to metal and he claimed there was no known use in Germany for Thorium. In pre war days Thorium had been used in toothpaste, but this use had ceased during the war. Apart from large captured stocks of Thorium in France, which were suddenly removed to Germany in 1944 after the Normandy landings, Thorium was also mined in the Erzbirge, right next to the Wenceslas mine, home to the Bell project. Nagelstein added that Otto Hahn was working on the Atomic bomb using either Thorium, or Uranium.
Other scientists known to have been involved included Dr Herman Oberth who in late September 1944 journeyed with Dr Herbert Jensen (nuclear physicist), Dr Edward Tholen and Dr Elizabeth Adler from Prague to Breslau. The Nazi Bell was located a short distance southwest of Breslau.  Oberth’s wartime expertise lay in developing special explosives. Schumann relied upon special high speed explosives for his shaped hollow charge mini nukes.
The importance of Schumann being linked with the Bell project is that he and Trinks had made a patent application for a hollow charge A-bomb which specified use of U233 as it’s fissile core. Thorium 232, if bombarded by Protons with less than 14MeV energy, may be transmuted to Uranium 233 without the risk of dangerous contamination by Uranium 232. This process is called Photo Fission, or Recoil Based Fuel Breeding. This method can also breed Plutonium 239 from Uranium 238.
Witkowski, Igor. "The Truth About the Wunderwaffe".
 NA Gerlach's Report dated 2 May 1945, RG 302, ref 244
 Deichmann, Ute & Dunlap, Thomas. "Biologists Under Hitler"
Farrell, Joseph. "The SS Brotherhood of the Bell: The Nazis' Incredible Secret Technology".
Bernstein, Jeremy. "Hitler's Uranium Club, The Secret recordings at Farm Hall
Litz Institiute, likeliest location Dessau aircraft manufacturing complex. Litz wire is a multi-braided wire for conducting very high voltage charges.
 Witkowski, Igor. "The Truth About the Wunderwaffe". Witkowski believing these to be German scientists is perhaps unaware the degree to which captured Soviet scientists were recruited for work on SS projects and the probability that scientists who were shot were likely to be Russian scientists.
 Bell evacuation flight noted in Farrell, Joseph. "Giza Death Star Deployed", based upon report of SS Hauptsturmführer Rudolf Schuster's interrogation, Berlin Document Centre.
 Stevens, Henry (2007) Adventures Unlimited Press. "Hitler's Suppressed and Still Secret Weapons, Science and Technology".
 Bodanis, David. " E=MC2"
 Witkowski, Igor. "The Truth About the Wunderwaffe".
© Simon Gunson (non-commercial reproduction permitted, but please cite source)
|Flight of the Nazi Bell|
The conventional view of the Junkers Ju-390 story is that only one prototype was ever built, being the Ju-390 V1. This version asserts that the Ju390 V1 was first flown from a dirt airstrip at Merseberg on 20 October 1943, piloted by civilian Flugkapitän Hans Joachim Pancherz and engineer Dipl-Ing Gast.
However there is also an earlier claim that the Ju-390 made its first flight in August 1943 at the hands of famous Reichlin Test pilot Flugkapitan Hans Werner Lerche at Bernberg.
The conventional view therefore is that the Ju-390V1 was retired from service and flown to Dessau in November 1944 where it was stripped of propellers and sat derelict until destroyed. There are conflicting claims of it's destruction by a US 8th Air Force raid on 16 January 1945 and other claims that it was burned in April 1945 to prevent capture.
Either way it is generally accepted the Ju-390 V1 ended its career at Dessau in November 1944 and remained derelict until destroyed in 1945.
Somewhat inconveniently for those who deny the existence of a second aircraft, accounts and sightings of Ju 390s in 1945 continued and even photos of a second aircraft in flight emerged.
In October 1943 Major Hoffmann recommended that Ju-390 production should commence immediately and there was no need for further prototype aircraft. Hoffmann urged proceeding straight to series production. Air Marshall Erhard Milch adopted Hoffmann's recommendation. The first prototype had been flying since August 1943. This aircraft displayed some longitudinal instability. The second aircraft had a much longer fuselage with a greater tail movement arm. The Ju-390 V2, fitted with BMW801E engines was redesignated as the production standard Ju-390 A1. Junkers company records suggest that the Ju-390A1 transporter was built and did fly.
The unconventional explanation for the fate of Junkers second Ju-390 concerns an alleged flight from an airfield at Schweidnitz in Poland to evacuate a Bell shaped ionising centrifuge used by the Nazis for advanced research of high energy fields, to Argentina, challenging historians who argue there was only ever one Ju 390 flying.
In the book "Wunderwaffe", by Igor Witkowski, it is stated that there are Polish depositions extant in WW2 War Crimes - proceedings against SS Lieutnant General (Gruppenführer) Jakob Sporrenberg, Police Chief (ie Gestapo) Lublin (occupied Poland), which indicate that "Cronos/Laternenträger" was a project in plasma physics. Sporrenberg was captured in Norway, held by the British in 1946 and then returned to Poland to stand trial. He was hung in December 1952. Before his execution he was interviewed at length and these interview reports were not declassified until 1998. Kammler oversaw this project. He was frequently at Gross-Rosen concentration camp which supplied labour for an immense underground construction in the Eulengebirge Mountains
Kammler oversaw removal and evacuation of the Bell project. He was frequently at Gross-Rosen concentration camp which supplied labour for an immense underground construction in the Eulengebirge Mountains and was linked by a long subterranean tunnel to the underground galleries at Waldenburg (modern Walbrzych) where "Cronos/Laternenträger" experiments took place. There is said to be a vast complex of tunnels over 35 square kilometres of territory. Today several tunnels are privately owned and open for tourists. Others are flooded and impossible to access. The existence of this complex is confirmed in a document dated Warsaw 6 May 1947 "Action for De-Arming Oder Line" which speaks of the removal of huge quantities of machinery from the interior of the location before it was destroyed by explosives.
In April 1945 the Nazi Government in Berlin was preparing to evacuate key personnel and records from the capital. A vast armada of transport aircraft was required for this task.
The last communication from Kammler is a cable timed at 1100 on 17 April 1945 addressed to SS-Führungshauptamt/Org. Abt. ROEM1, Kammler responding to Berlin's request for use of transport aircraft under his command, which reads:
"Betr: LKW Junkers
Gemäss Führerbefehl gehen Massnahmen Strahlflugzeug Militärischen voraus. Bin deshalb nicht in der Lage gewesen, gewünschten LKW freizustellen. Bau-Insp. der Waffen-SS Reich Süd, Gez. Kammler
"Re: Lorry Junkers
In accordance with Führer-Order jet aircraft measures take precedence over military. Have therefore not been in the position to release the lorry you require. Bau-Insp etc, signed Kammler."
Lorry was simply code for the Junkers aircraft. This gives us an approximate date for the Bell's evacuation. About 17 April 1945.
An extraordinary aspect of this was that Kammler was turning down a request for the Ju-390 from Hitler's headquarters in April 1945. Why was Hitler's headquarters requesting the Ju-390 ?
Speer said Baur had serious plans to fly Hitler out on 23, 28 and 29 April 1945. Speer quoted Baur saying to him after the war, "right up to the last days I could have flown the Führer anywhere in the world."
Baur however was denied use of the Ju-390 for Hitler by Kammler. The world learned in 2004 from then 93 year old Hauptmann Ernst König that on 1 May 1945 he received orders from Baur to prepare a six engined Bv222 flying boat to fly VIP passengers from Norway to Greenland.
Rudolf Schuster's testimony
As the story is told, In April 1945 as Soviet forces closed on Schweidnz (modern Swidnica). the Bell was loaded on a Junkers Ju-390 aircraft.
In his book, "Wunderwaffe", Witkowski says the Ju-390 flew from Prague to Opole, Poland.
Another witness SS Hauptsturmführer Rudolf Schuster of the SS Economic Ministry (WHVA) who witnessed the Bell device being loaded into a Ju 390 for an evacuation from Germany at an airfield at Schweidnitz 100km west of Opole in an area still held by the 17th Army. The 1st Panzer Army still held territory east, near Opole and the 4th Panzer Army still held territory west of Schweidnitz (modern Swidnica). Other sources suggest the airfield may have been Bystzyca Klodzka airfield situated in a valley within the Eulenbirge mountains themseleves and indeed west of Opole. Bystzyca Klodzka was connected by narrow gauge railway with the Wenceslas mine at Ludwikowice.
Schuster was with the special economic department of the SS. His testimony survives to us at the Berlin Document Centre. Critics say there is no record of Schuster's name in the SS, but the same can be said of many Luftwaffe personnel after the Nazis deliberately destroyed personnel files at Linz in April 1945.
Nuclear scientist Professor Walther Gerlach had been involved with the Nazi Bell device. Gerlach was the only Nazi scientist handed over to the Americans by the British. His wartime diary remains classified top secret by the CIA.
Testimony from Dr Wilhelm Voss
In 1974 British Journalist Tom Agoston interviewed Kammler's boss in charge of the SS Skoda works, Dr Wilhelm Voss. His guest Voss, unaware of the testimony from either Schuster, or Sporrenberg told Agoston about the Ju-390 flight from Schweidnitz to Bodo and the Bell. Voss was in hiding at Agoston's lodgings seeking to avoid indictment at Nuremberg.
Arriving Bodo Norway
Sporrenberg claims the Ju-390 was kept under SS guard at Bodo under tarpaulins painted in pale colours of the Swedish Air Force. Bodo was a small fishing town of 5000 Norwegians. The airfield nearby had been hastily built by the British in 1940 as a base for Hurricanes and Gladiator fighters.
The Luftwaffe took over Bodo airfield basing a collection of Me-109, Ju-87 Stukas and a handful of Ju-88/Ju-188 there. Bodo's 1200 metre runway was formed by planking over a marsh area. It would have had a relatively weak flexible runway. Fortuitously the Ju-290 was capable of landing on runways with Pavement Construction Numbers (PCN) of just 7.5.
The Ju-390 was also capable of landing in just 510 metres of runway. It had an exceptionally slow stall speed of just 66 knots.
From Bodo to Argentina
At this point German sources fall silent, but according to several 1945 claims, a six engined, or multi engined German transport plane arrived at a private aerodrome at Puntas de Gualeguay in Argentina 195 km north of Buenos Aires where it unloaded a Bell device and some passengers.
-- Classified Intelligence report of Argentine Economic Ministry 1945 only declassified 1993
The report itself was not published. Prior to declassification of Polish archives in 1998 there was no public knowledge of the Nazi Bell device, thus the Argentine report was an entirely independent corroboration of Sporrenberg, Schuster and Voss.
Witkowski revealed a report, only declassified in 1998, by the son of a Polish diplomat who witnessed a Junker 390 being dismantled in May 1945 at an airfield on a German ranch along a road east from Paysandu city towards Rivera, near the village of "19 de Abril" in Paysandu Province, Uruguay.
The aircraft's arrival is also quoted in Abel Basti's 2004 tourist guide to "Barriloche Nazi."
Three independent sources corroborated each other about a Ju-390 flight from Silesia to Bodo. Two further reports independently corroborate the arrival of this aircraft in Argentina and/or Uruguay in May 1945. All five cross corroborate each other that the Ju-390 evacuated a Bell device from the war in Europe.
When Argentina created it's own nuclear program in 1947 at remote Lake Nahuel Huapei, close to the Nazi populated town of Barriloche, it was the same device offloaded from the Ju 390 at El Palomar which was set up in Dr Ronald Richter's laboratory. Information that the Bell was a particle accelerator comes in part from the 1956 job application by Dr Ronald Richter to work for the US Air Force. A job application which apparently was so sensitive that it too remained classified until 1999.